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Working with an ASL-English Interpreter and Providing Visual Accessibility for Deaf Consumers

by Amy Frasu, MA, CI, CT
Working with an ASL-English Interpreter (pdf version)

Providing Access

Communication access is a right.

Equal access for Deaf people is required by the Americans with Disabilities Act and other laws. One component of providing accessibility may be to hire a certified and/or qualified ASL-English interpreter.

What is interpreting?

The interpreter’s job is to facilitate communication.

Many people in the United States communicate via spoken English. For many Deaf people, American Sign Language (ASL) is their native language. Without a mediator to interpret these auditory-based and visually-based languages, communication may not be accessible.

An interpreter uses American Sign Language and spoken English to bridge this communication gap. Information the interpreter hears is conveyed to the Deaf person. Information the Deaf person expresses is conveyed to other people present. This process provides each participant with the opportunity to communicate freely.

What is NOT interpreting?

Professional boundaries must be clearly defined in order for the interpreter to function appropriately.

The interpreter's responsibility is to bridge communication gaps through use of American Sign Language, spoken English, cultural mediation, and knowledge about accessibility. The interpreter is not an advisor.

Will working with an interpreter be distracting?

Working as a team benefits everyone involved.

When you are working with an interpreter, please speak at a normal rate. If the interpreter needs you to clarify or repeat any information, he or she may ask you questions. Although people might initially be distracted by the novelty of watching an interpreter, they will still be able to pay attention during a meeting or lecture.

Ethics of Interpreting

Professional interpreters have a strict Code of Professional Conduct.
  • All interpreted information is confidential.
  • The interpreter cannot interfere, advise, or interject personal opinions into interpreted situations.
  • Interpreters are professionals, and must conduct themselves appropriately.


There is no such thing as too much information.

Interpreters must clearly understand what they are hearing and seeing in order to accurately interpret information. Working with the interpreter to prepare will help the consumer to benefit from a deeply processed interpretation. Summaries of upcoming discussions, key vocabulary, videos, and special events can give the interpreter the necessary background knowledge to interpret new facts and concepts to the Deaf consumer.

The Need to Rest

Without adequate rest, permanent injury can occur.

Interpreting is physically and mentally draining. The ideal amount of time for one interpreter to provide services is 20-30 minutes. At this point the interpreter should switch with a second interpreter or take a break of at least five minutes. Taking the steps to rest periodically allows the interpreter to perform better and to avoid cumulative motion injuries.

Assessing the Access

Interpreting is a method of providing accessibility, but there are many other considerations.

Deaf people rely on their vision to communicate and learn. Whether the Deaf person is expected to watch an interpreter, an experiment, a video tape, written examples, a demonstration, or information on a handout - all messages are gathered visually.

Therefore, important considerations are:
  • one message at a time - If you expect the Deaf person to understand more than one message at a time, missed information is unavoidable. The most effective presentation strategy is to use sequenced actions instead of simultaneous actions. This may be accomplished by:
  • Using a multiple-step approach - As separate steps, verbally describe a concept, then show the concept with objects or writing. After the demonstration, review the concept again. This allows the Deaf person to see all of the messages that hearing people hear and observe (as opposed to showing a concept while talking about it at the same time, causing the Deaf person to miss valuable information.)
  • Speaking one at a time during discussions - This gives the Deaf person (and the interpreter) a clear understanding of the discussion’s content. With a clear turn-taking process, the Deaf person is given more opportunity to join the discussion.
  • Using closed captioning during videos - Captioning allows the Deaf person to follow the action of the movie while still being able to read the words being spoken.
  • wait time - Interpreting does not happen instantly. The interpreter must hear, understand, and sign each thought, using several seconds of processing time. Waiting about 3 to 5 extra seconds for the Deaf person to comprehend messages will give him or her the chance to comment with the group. Wait time is often beneficial for hearing people as well.
  • line of sight - The Deaf person should be able to see all important visual messages (the interpreter, speaker, other participants, board/projector screen, TV, etc.) from the best possible position. This may require flexible seating assignments for each activity.
  • adequate lighting - In order to receive visual messages, the Deaf person must have enough light to see clearly.
  • other considerations - Every Deaf consumer is different. Individual needs must be evaluated before deciding what creates an accessible environment for each Deaf person.

Other Resources about Deafness & Interpreting:


  • The interpreter's responsibility is to bridge communication gaps through use of American Sign Language, spoken English, cultural mediation, and knowledge about accessibility.
  • As ethical professionals, interpreters must respect consumers’ right to confidentiality and independence.
  • Helping the interpreter review and prepare for upcoming activities will help to shape a clearly processed interpretation.
  • Resting periodically allows the interpreter to perform better and to avoid cumulative motion injuries.
  • Interpreting is one part of providing accessibility. There are many other considerations to be made, such as: arranging for one message at a time, wait time, line of sight, adequate lighting, and consideration of each consumer’s individual needs.
Citation of this Document:

Frasu, Amy. "Working with an ASL-English Interpreter & Providing Visual Accessibility for Deaf Students." http://www.DeafLinx.com.

This article was written by Amy Frasu. It is intended to be an informational guide. Click here for information about guidelines to copy or distribute this information. Direct quotes may be used if proper citation is given. Amy Frasu (MA, CI/CT, NIC Advanced, BEI Advanced) earned her Bachelor of Arts degree in Deaf Education and Elementary Education from Flagler College in St. Augustine, Florida and graduated with honors from Gallaudet University with her Master of Arts degree in Interpretation. Amy has worked as a community interpreter in Texas, Washington DC, Florida, and California. As an ASL-English interpreter since 1994, Amy has worked in a variety of settings, including medical appointments, business meetings, conferences, video relay service, theater, k-12 schools, undergraduate courses, and graduate courses. She also mentors interpreters, provides diagnostic assessments, and is an interpreter at the San Antonio College in the Department of American Sign Language and Interpreter Training.

The original deaflinx.com site was written and authored by Amy Frasu. Deaf Linx is now run by Ericka Wiggins. Here are the Facebook and Twitter pages for Deaf Linx.